Apparel Science




Four-Point System, a standard established under ASTM D5430 - 07(2011), is a standardized Test Methods for fabric Visually Inspecting and Grading. Four-Point System is widest acceptance in fabric inspection due to its practical, impartial, and worldwide recognized. 

The four-point system derives its name from the basic grading rule that a maximum of four penalty points can be assessed for any single defect and that no linear meter can be assigned more than four points regardless of the number of defects within that piece.

Defect Classification


Defects/faults identified and appointed a number of points depending on the severity/length of the defect.


Inches ( ˝ )



From 0 > 3" length/width

Up to 75mm

1 point

From 3.1" > 6"length/width   

75mm  > 150mm

2 points

From 6.1" > 9"length/width

150mm  > 230mm

3 points

More than 9"length/width       

More than 230mm

4 points

            * Hole is evaluated point by size.

Holes and openings (largest dimension)

1" or less


Over 1"



Point Calculation

Once the rolls are inspected, the Points per 100 Square Yards or Meter must be calculated to determine acceptability of the roll and/or shipment. The formulas for the calculations are shown below:


Point Calculation For Individual Roll:

Points per 100 Square Yards =            _______Total Points for the roll x 3600_______

                                                         Inspected Yards x Cuttable Fabric Width (inch)


Points per 100 Square Meters =         _______Total Points for the roll x 100,000 _____

                                                       Inspected Meters x Cuttable Fabric Width (MM)


Example: A fabric roll 150 yards long and 56" wide contains following defects.


6 defects up to 3" length

4 defects from 3" to 6" length

2 defects from 6" to 9" length

1 defect over 9" length

1 hole over 1"

6 x 1

4 X 2

2 X 3

1 X 4

1 X 4

6 points

8 points

6 points

4 points

4 points

Total defect points

28 Points


Points / sq. yards

= (28 X 3600) / (56 X 150)

= 12 points


If a defect is observed: Faults are classified and scored with penalty points of 1, 2, 3 and 4, according to their size and significance.

Each defect should be counted as a separate defect even if the nature is the same and then based on the points allocated to each defect, total points should be calculated.

No more than 4 penalty points can be assigned for any single defect.

No linear yard or meter can contain more than 4 points, regardless of the number of defects within that yard or meter.

A continuous running defect which exceeds 9 inches (23 cm) should be assigned 4 points. In the event there is an additional defect within the same linear yard or meter it should be considered as a separate defect and assigned defect point accordingly.

Any continuous defect (i.e., roll to roll shading, narrow or irregular width, creasing, uneven finish, barre’, skew, etc.) should be assigned a maximum of 4 points for every yard or meter within a shipment.

Each full width defect should assign 4 points.

Obvious, noticeable and severe defects are to be assigned 4 points for each yard or meter in which they occur, regardless of size.

All defects must be marked with sticker at the location of defect or with a marker (sticker, swift tack, etc.) at selvedge edge.

 Fabric width must be checked a minimum of 3 times during inspection and documented on the inspection report.

Defects must be documented by type and point count on the inspection report.

 Actual roll length should be checked and documented on the inspection report.


Point Calculation For Shipment:


Total Shipment Points per 100 Sq. Yards =     ____Total Average Points per Linear Yard x 3600______

                                                                   Shipment Inspected Yards x Cuttable Fabric Width (inch)


Total Shipment Points per 100 Sq. Meters = ____Total Average Points per Linear Meter x 10,000_____

                                                                 Shipment Inspected Meters x Cuttable Fabric Width (MM)


Fabric shipments exceeding following point totals are considered to be second quality and not acceptable. Fabric supplier is responsible for their fabric defect and to compensate for defects, 1 yard for every 8 points.

For below items classified for a point fabric, fabric supplier should compensate for all defective garment cutting panels or pieces.






Dress Shirting’s - >50/1 
All Tailored Suiting Fabrics
Open End Denim 12-16 oz./ yd2
All Synthetics
Filament Rayon 
Poplin/Oxford/Gingham Shirting 
Light weight Denim 4-8oz./yd2
Mid weight Denim 9-12oz./yd2

20 points/100 yard2
24 points/100 meter2

15 points/100 yard2
18 point/100 meter2


Ring spun Denim 12-16oz./yd.2
Woven’s with Spandex/Elastane 
Seersucker, Dobby, Jacquard 
Chambray/Indigo Yarn Dyes 
All Silk 
Basic Knits

25 points/100 yard2

20 points/100 yard2


All Specialty Knits

30 points/100 yard2
36 points/100 meter2

25 points/100 yard2
30 points/100 meter2


Linen Blends
Rayon Blends

40 points/100 yard2
48 points/100 meter2

32 points/100 yard2
38 points/100 meter2



60 points/100 yard2
72 points/100 meter2

50 points/100 yard2
60 points/100 meter2


Defect calculation: total liner yards + total defect points x 100


No individual roll should be considered first quality if the total point exceeds above defect points per 100 linear yards.







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